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Endoscopy instruments, ergonomics and energy sources


There has been a great revolution in the surgical approaches in last two decades. The surgical methods have travelled from the era of open surgeries to laparoscopic and robotic surgeries. In contrast to conventional open surgeries, laparoscopic surgery depends not only on the skill of the surgeon but on the technology used to design specialized instruments as well. Over the last two decades there has been a quantum leap in the technology used in the cameras, instrument designing and energy sources. The instruments are computer designed, there are microprocessors in place to modify energy delivery and there are a number of safety features, which increase the scope and safety of laparoscopic surgeries.

Knowing your instrument and the energy sources is an essential requirement before starting the endoscopic surgeries. One must know the scientific concept, designing, opening and closing of these instruments and the safety rules. Current series of lectures deals with all the intricacies of endoscopic equipment, hand instruments and energy sources.

Following lectures have been included

  1. L-1 Endoscopy Video Imaging System - 1

  2. L-2 Endoscopy Video Imaging System - 2

  3. L-3 Endoscopic Hand Instruments - 1

  4. L-4 Endoscopic Hand Instruments - 2

  5. Endoscopic Hand Instruments - 3

  6. L-6 Endoscopic Hand Instruments - 4

  7. L-7 Endoscopic Hand Instruments - 5

  8. L-8 Endoscopic Hand Instruments - 6

  9. L-9 Energy sources in endoscopy - 1

  10. L-10 Energy sources in endoscopy - 1

  11. L-11 Ergonomics in endoscopy - 1

  12. L-12 Ergonomics in endoscopy - 2


  1. Endoscopy Video Imaging System - 1: In this lecture I have explained the technical information on resolution, aspect ratio, HD definition Image sensors, three chip and single chip cameras, pixel shift technology, digital versus optical zoom and video cables

  2. Endoscopy Video Imaging System - 2: In this lecture, I have explained all the trolly equipments i.e. camera, screen, telescope, light cable, gas insufflator,

  3. Endoscopic Hand Instruments - 1: in this lecture principles and the intricacies of trocar, cannula and veres needle has been explained

  4. Endoscopic Hand Instruments - 2: in this lecture functioning of the grasping instruments have been explained i.e. traumatic and nontraumatic graspers, bowel graspers, endoclinch, stone graspers

  5. Endoscopic Hand Instruments - 3: In this lecture scissors, myoma screw, L hook, monopolar spatula, suction cannula, needle holder, PCO needle, Berchi’s needle etc

  6. Endoscopic Hand Instruments - 4: parts and functioning of laparoscopic ligation instrument

  7. Endoscopic Hand Instruments - 5: In this lecture , detailed explanation of uterine  manipulator with special emphasis on Mangeshkar manipulator has been done

  8. Endoscopic Hand Instruments - 6: In this lecture, all the finer details of hysteroscopy has been covered

  9. Energy sources in endoscopy - 1: in this lecture, principles of electrosurgery has been discussed

  10. Energy sources in endoscopy - 1: in this lecture newer electrogenerator  i.e., hormonic, enseal, thunderbeat has been discussed

  11. Ergonomics in endoscopy - 1: in this lecture, ergonomic during laparoscopic surgery has been discussed

  12. Ergonomics in endoscopy - 2: in this lecture baseball diamond concept while performing laparoscopic surgery has been discussed

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